QUOTE(notanastronaut @ Oct 24 2009, 09:43 PM)
Thank you Sir. It is important that it comes back to me as well, not only him!!!
ok, here are one or two speeds which wil help. Just put these speeds VLS,Vapp,Vref into a search engine and you can click on the link when it comes up (the address of the document) and you will get a whole group of pages for the A320 or A330 or all the speeds from the JAR ATPL syllabus and also the FAR (FAA) syllabus.
APPENDIX Getting to Grips with Aircraft Performance
TOGA TakeOff / Go-Around thrust
TOW TakeOff Weight
V1 Takeoff decision speed
V2 Takeoff climb speed
VAPP Final approach speed
VEF Engine failure speed
VFE Maximum flap extended speed
VLE Landing gear extended speed
VLO Landing gear operating speed
VLOF Lift Off speed
VLS Lowest selectable speed
VMBE Maximum brake energy speed
VMCA Minimum control speed in the air
VMCG Minimum control speed on ground
VMCL Minimum control speed during approach and landing
VMCL-2 VMCL two engines inoperative
VMO Maximum Operating speed
VMU Minimum Unstick speed
VR Rotation speed
VREF Reference landing speed
VS Stalling speed
VS1G Stalling speed at one g
VSR Reference stalling speed
Vtire Maximum tire speed
VFR Visual Flight Rules
VMC Visual Meteorological Conditions
Wa Apparent weight
WC Wind component
Lowest Selectable Speed: VLS
As a general rule, during flight phases, pilots should not select a speed below
VLS (Lowest Selectable Speed), defined as 1.23 VS1g of the actual configuration.
VLS = 1.23 Vs1g g
* The 1.23 factor is applicable to the fly-by-wire aircraft (1.3 for the others).
This rule applies for landing. During landing, pilots have to maintain a
stabilized approach, with a calibrated airspeed of no less than VLS down to a height of
50 feet above the destination airport.
Final Approach Speed: VAPP
VAPP is the aircraft speed during landing, 50 feet above the runway surface.
The flaps/slats are in landing configuration, and the landing gears are extended.
VAPP is limited by VLS:
VAPP â‰¥ VLS
It is very common to retain a margin on VLS to define VAPP. For Airbus aircraft,
in normal operations, the VAPP is defined by:
VAPP = VLS + wind correction
Wind correction is limited to a minimum of 5 knots, and a maximum of 15
knots. VAPP is displayed on MCDU APPRoach page.
The FMGS and managed speed is used to define the VAPP TARGET. It gives
efficient speed guidance in approach with windy conditions, since it represents:
VAPP TARGET = GS mini + actual headwind
GS mini = VAPP + Tower wind
Actual headwind is measured by ADIRS, and the tower wind is entered on the
When the auto-thrust is used or to compensate for ice accretion on the wings
Reference Speed: VREF
In case of failure in flight, emergency or abnormal configuration, performance
computations are based on a reference configuration and on a reference speed. VREF
means the steady landing approach speed at the 50 feet point for a defined landing
configuration. For Airbus, this configuration is CONF FULL.
VREF= VLS in CONF FULL
In case of a system failure affecting landing performance, Airbus operational
documentation indicates the correction to be applied to VREF to take into account the
VAPP = VREF +/- VINOP
Another speed increment can be added to VAPP.
Operators of different aircraft will apply an increase in Vref for flap retraction speeds after takeoff - such as the L1011-1 Tri-Star. So you would have your Vr followed by V2 then flap retract speed for the first stage of retraction would be V2+10 for example or V2 + 20 just for example and these would be bugging up the bug speed after take off. These increments will be maintained or altered depending on the status of the engines and/or systems during takeoff, as you know already.
Hope this helps.